Dimensions of Learning: Cognitive, Affective and Performance / psychomotor - KVS DSSSB CTET & Other Teaching Exams
The dimension of Learning: Cognitive, Affective and Performance / psychomotor
About BS Bloom
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
In 1956 Benjamin Bloom and some fellow researchers published a taxonomy of educational objectives that has been extremely influential in the research and practice of education ever since.
A taxonomy is a system of classification. Bloom and his colleagues categorized objectives from simple to complex, or from factual to conceptual.
These key elements are commonly known as Bloom’s taxonomy.
This taxonomy defines levels of objectives in 3 domains:
- 1. Cognitive (knowledge based) – relating to intellectual capability i.e. knowledge or ‘think’
- 2. Affective (emotive based) – relating to feelings, attitudes, values and behaviours
- 3. Psychomotor (action based) – relating to physical coordination and performance of physical skills
The original Bloom’s Taxonomy contained six developmental categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
A revised version of Bloom’s taxonomy was published by Anderson et al. in 2001. Three most prominent changes are:
- changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms
- rearranging them as shown in the chart below
- creating processes and levels of knowledge matrix
Bloom’s taxonomyIt is hierarchical. Higher level learning is reliant on knowledge and skills attained at lower levels.
As per revised version, the 6 levels within the Cognitive domain are:
- Remembering: To recall, recognise, or identify concepts
- Understanding: To comprehend meaning, explain data in own words
- Applying: Use or apply knowledge, in practice or real life situations
- Analysing: Interpret elements, structure relationships between individual components
- Evaluation: Assess effectiveness of whole concepts in relation to other variables
- Creation: Display creative thinking, develop new concepts or approaches
The 5 levels within the Affective domain are:
- Receiving: Open to experience or idea, willing to hear
- Responding: Get involved in or participate actively
- Valuing: Attach values and express personal opinions
- Organising: Reconcile disparate elements or conflicts, develop value system
- Internalising / characterization: Adopt belief system or philosophy
The 5 levels within the Psychomotor domain are:
- Imitation: Copy the actions of another, to observe and replicate
- Manipulation: Reproduce activity from instruction or memory
- Precision: Demonstrate activity reliably, to a high quality, and independently
- Articulation: Integrate and adapt expertise to fulfill a non-standard objective
- Naturalisation: Automated, unconscious mastery of activity at a strategic level
In summary, Bloom’s Taxonomy is a universally effective classification strategy for educators, useful as a guide in creating educational / training content, impart learning with clear objectives, and assess learners on the learning outcomes.