First Aid [Prathmik Chikitsa] - KVS PRT TGT PGT & Teaching Exams [Reflect]
What is First Aid?
First aid refers to the emergency or immediate care you should provide when a person is injured or ill until full medical treatment is available. For minor conditions, first aid care may be enough. For serious problems, first aid care should be continued until more advanced care becomes available.
Watch Complete Lecture on First Aid.
FIRST AID BASICS
The first step in any emergency is the recognition of the problem and providing help. When in doubt or when someone is seriously injured or ill, you should always activate the emergency response system by calling 911. If you’re not sure how serious the situation is, the 911 operator will ask you a series of questions to determine the seriousness of it.
Remain on the line until additional help arrives, or until the 911 operator tells you to hang up. Emergency system dispatchers can guide you through the steps of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), using an automatic external defibrillator (AED), or delivering basic care until additional help arrives.
Whether you are at home, work, or school, know where the first aid kit and the AED are kept and be familiar with their contents. Know how to activate the emergency response system (by calling 911 if in the United States). Be aware of any policies in the workplace regarding medical emergencies.
After determining the problem, the next step in providing help is to determine the unresponsiveness of the injured or ill person. The best way to determine this is to tap the person and talk loudly to them: “Are you okay?” After determining unresponsiveness, yell for help. Look for any medical identifications, such as a necklace or a bracelet. This may provide a valuable clue to the cause of the situation. One set of goals to keep in mind for first aid would be what we like to call the “Three P’s.”
THE THREE P’S
- Preserve life – your main goal should be to keep the person alive.
- Prevent further injury – keep the injured person safe and from becoming injured any more. It is always recommended that you do not move them until help arrives.
- Promote recovery – try to help fix their injuries as best as you can.
Assessing the safety of the surroundings is critical when approaching any scene. You do not want to become another person who is injured or ill, so look for any potential dangers. Remove the person from any dangers, such as the presence of water at the scene. Be especially alert to avoid danger from automobile traffic.
HANDWASHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR
Handwashing is essential in the prevention of disease and illness. Wash your hands after each episode of care and after taking off the gloves. Also, be sure to wash the injured/ill person’s hands at the first opportunity. When a sink is not available, use hand sanitizers. (Most hand sanitizers are alcohol-based and are a substitute for handwashing when needed.)
FIRST AID KIT
Common items found in a first aid kit are:
- Bandages, roller bandages and tape
- Sterile gauze
- Antiseptic wipes and swabs
- Absorbent compresses
- Antibiotic cream
- Burn ointment
- Mask for breathing (rescue breathing/CPR)
- Chemical cold pack
- Eyeshield and eyewash
- First aid reference guide that includes local phone numbers
What is CPR?
CPR – or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – is an emergency lifesaving procedure performed when the heart stops beating. Immediate CPR can double or triple chances of survival after cardiac arrest.
Watch This Video to Understand CPR Process
What is AED - Automated External Defibrillator?
An AED, or automated external defibrillator, is used to help those experiencing sudden cardiac arrest.
Watch this video to understand the working of AED.
Steps in Case of Casulaity (Breathing)
1. Check whether the person is breathing. If they’re not breathing, have someone call 911 or your local emergency services immediately and prepare to begin CPR. If they’re breathing, position the person on their back.
2. Raise their legs at least 12 inches above the ground.
3.Loosen any restrictive clothing or belts. If they don’t regain consciousness within one minute, call 911 or your local emergency services.
4. Check their airway to make sure there’s no obstruction.
5. Check again to see if they’re breathing, coughing, or moving. These are signs of positive circulation. If these signs are absent, perform CPR until emergency personnel arrive.
6. If there’s major bleeding occurring, place direct pressure on the bleeding area or apply a tourniquet above the bleeding area until expert help arrives.
Type of Burns
What causes burns?
You can get burned by heat and fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity or chemicals. There are three degrees of burns:
1. Thin or superficial burns (also called first-degree burns) are red and painful. They swell a little. They turn white when you press on them. The skin over the burn may peel off in 1 or 2 days.
2. Thicker burns, called superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burns (also called second-degree burns), have blisters and are painful.
3. Full-thickness burns (also called third-degree burns) cause damage to all layers of the skin. The burned skin looks white or charred. These burns may cause little or no pain if nerves are damaged
First Aid in Case of Fracture
First Aid for Elders with Fractures
Approach the situation with a cool head and follow these first aid procedures.
1. Call 911 and request emergency transportation to Highland's Geriatric Fracture Center.
2. Apply ice to the site of the fracture.
3. Keep the patient lying down and as still as possible. Cover to keep warm.
4. If there is bleeding, place a clean cloth or hand over the wound and apply gentle pressure to stop the bleeding.
5. Do not move the patient unless he or she is in danger of further injury at that location.
6. Do not attempt to re-align a broken bone yourself.
7. Do not provide the patient with foods or fluids by mouth. This may delay administration of a general anesthetic when emergency surgery is required.
8. When the patient is moved, make sure that a splint is used to immobilize the injury.
First Aid in Case Patient is Faint.
If someone else faints
1. Position the person on his or her back. If there are no injuries and the person is breathing, raise the person's legs above heart level — about 12 inches (30 centimeters) — if possible. Loosen belts, collars or other constrictive clothing.
2. To reduce the chance of fainting again, don't get the person up too quickly. If the person doesn't regain consciousness within one minute, call 911 or your local emergency number.
3. Check for breathing. If the person isn't breathing, begin CPR. Call 911 or your local emergency number. Continue CPR until help arrives or the person begins to breathe.
First Aid in case of Heart Attack
What to do if you or someone else may be having a heart attack
1. Call 911 or your local emergency number. Don't ignore or attempt to tough out the symptoms of a heart attack. If you don't have access to emergency medical services, have a neighbor or a friend drive you to the nearest hospital.
2. Drive yourself only as a last resort, and realize that it places you and others at risk when you drive under these circumstances.
3. Chew and swallow an aspirin, unless you are allergic to aspirin or have been told by your doctor never to take aspirin.
4. Take nitroglycerin, if prescribed. If you think you're having a heart attack and your doctor has previously prescribed nitroglycerin for you, take it as directed. Don't take anyone else's nitroglycerin, because that could put you in more danger.
5. Begin CPR if the person is unconscious. If you're with a person who is unconscious, tell the 911 dispatcher or another emergency medical specialist. You may be advised to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
6. If you haven't received CPR training, doctors recommend performing only chest compressions (about 100 to 120 compressions a minute). The dispatcher can instruct you in the proper procedures until help arrives.
7. If an automated external defibrillator (AED) is immediately available and the person is unconscious, follow the device instructions for using it.
First Aid in case of Nose Bleed
1. Sit upright and lean forward. By remaining upright, you reduce blood pressure in the veins of your nose. This discourages further bleeding. Sitting forward will help you avoid swallowing blood, which can irritate your stomach.
2. Pinch your nose. Use your thumb and index finger to pinch your nostrils shut. Breathe through your mouth. Continue to pinch for 10 to 15 minutes. Pinching sends pressure to the bleeding point on the nasal septum and often stops the flow of blood.
3. If the bleeding continues after 10 to 15 minutes, repeat holding pressure for another 10 to 15 minutes. Avoid peeking at your nose. If the bleeding still continues, seek emergency care.
4. To prevent re-bleeding, don't pick or blow your nose and don't bend down for several hours after the bleeding episode. During this time remember to keep your head higher than the level of your heart. You can also gently apply some petroleum jelly to the inside of your nose using a cotton swab or your finger.
5. If re-bleeding occurs, blow out forcefully to clear your nose of blood clots. Then spray both sides of your nose with a decongestant nasal spray containing oxymetazoline (Afrin). Pinch your nose again as described above and call your doctor.
Check Your Progress:
1) How should you open the airway of an unconscious casualty?
A. Head tilt and chin lift.
B. Jaw thrust.
C. Head tilt and jaw thrust.
D. Lift the chin.
2) How long would you check to see if an unconscious casualty is breathing normally?
A. No more than 10 seconds.
B. Approximately 10 seconds.
C. Exactly 10 seconds.
D. At least 10 seconds.
3) You are a lone first aider and have an unconscious non-breathing adult, what should you do first?
A. Start CPR with 30 chest compressions.
B. Give five initial rescue breaths.
C. Call 911/112 requesting AED (defibrillator) and ambulance.
D. Give two initial rescue breaths.
4) Which is the correct ratio of chest compressions to rescue breaths for use in CPR of an adult casualty?
A. 2 compressions : 30 rescue breaths.
B. 5 compressions : 1 rescue breath.
C. 15 compressions : 2 rescue breaths.
D. 30 compressions : 2 rescue breaths.
5) Which of the following is the correct sequence for the chain of survival?
A. 911/112. CPR. Defibrillation. Advanced care.
B. CPR. Defibrillation. 911/112. Advanced care.
C. Defibrillation. CPR. 911/112. Advanced care.
D. Defibrillation. 911/112. CPR. Advanced care.
6) What is the cause of angina?
A. Insufficient blood reaching the lungs.
B. Insufficient blood reaching the brain.
C. Insufficient blood reaching the heart muscle.
D. Insufficient blood reaching the leg muscles.
7) What should a casualty with a severe allergy carry at all times?
C. Adrenaline (Epipen).
8) Which test should you use if you suspect that a casualty has had a stroke?
A. Face, Arms, Speech, Test.
B. Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive.
C. Response, Airway, Breathing, Circulation.
D. Pulse, Respiratory Rate, Temperature
9) Which of the following can cause a stroke?
A. A blood clot in an artery in the brain.
B. A blood clot in an artery in the heart.
C. A blood clot in an artery in the leg.
D. A blood clot in an artery in the lungs.
10) What should your first action be when treating an electrical burn?
A. Ensure that the casualty is still breathing.
B. Wash the burn with cold water.
C. Check for danger and ensure that contact with the electrical source is broken.
D. Check for level of response.
11) What is an open fracture?
A. A fracture in which the bone ends can move around.
B. A fracture in which the bone is exposed as the skin is broken.
C. A fracture which causes complications such as a punctured lung.
D. A fracture in which the bone has bent and split.
12) Which medical condition will develop from severe blood loss?
13) What names are given to the three different depths of burns?
A. Small, medium and large.
B. First, second and third degree.
C. Minor, medium and severe.
D. Superficial, partial thickness, full thickness.
14) What is a faint?
A. A response to fear.
B. An unexpected collapse.
C. A brief loss of consciousness.
D. A sign of flu.
15) What steps would you take to control bleeding from a nosebleed?
A. Sit casualty down, lean forward and pinch soft part of nose.
B. Sit casualty down, lean backward and pinch soft part of nose.
C. Lie casualty down and pinch soft part of nose.
D. Lie casualty down and pinch top of nose.