Right of a Child - Indian Perspective - KVS, DSSSB, CTET & Other Teaching Exams

Right of a Child - Indian Perspective - KVS, DSSSB, CTET & Other Teaching Exams

What are children’s rights?


Children’s rights are defined by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention provides for three categories of rights:

  • Rights of provision, for example to education and health care.
  • Rights of protection, for example, from abuse and neglect.
  • Rights of participation, for example the right to be heard in matters affecting the child.

What is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child?


On November 20, 1989, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the most comprehensive treaty for the protection and support of children in existence today. It reaffirms the fact that children, because of their vulnerability, need special care and protection, defined in terms of rights. The Convention represents a historic milestone. It not only symbolizes the many years of struggle to improve children’s status in society but also attempts to consolidate international law on the basic rights of children. The Convention has been ratified by more countries than any other human rights treaty in history. Canada is one of over 170 nations that have signed the Convention, illustrating our government’s commitment to recognize the fundamental human dignity of our children and to ensure their well-being and healthy development. By signing this document, countries are obliged to review their domestic laws and practices regarding children and to make any changes needed to reach the minimum standards set by the Convention.

What are the guiding principles of the Convention?


There are four guiding principles; the aim is to provide the best conditions for the development of all children:

  • The best interests principle. The Convention requires that the primary consideration in decision-making about children shall be the child’s best interests.
  • Non-discrimination. All children must be provided with equal opportunity for healthy development.
  • Importance of family. The Convention supports the importance of the family to the child, parental authority and parental guidance.
  • Participation. Children must be given a voice in all matters that affect them in accordance with their age and maturity.

Why is a legal document describing children’s rights necessary?


According to UNICEF Canada, each day 35,000 children die from malnutrition and related diseases. Wars have killed 2 million and disabled 4 million children over the past 15 years. Seven million are growing up in refugee camps or temporary settlements. Some 80 million children between the ages of 10 and 14 work for low wages often in dangerous conditions. So, what does this mean for Canadians? Canada’s children are not immune to inadequate or inappropriate living conditions. Many of Canada’s children experience poverty, poor nutrition, physical, sexual or emotional abuse, neglect, and more mild forms of child labor. Many of our refugee and immigrant children have experienced the trauma of war.

How does the Convention define a child?


The Convention defines a child as a person below the age of 14, unless the laws of a particular country establish the legal age for adulthood as younger than 14.

Does the Convention address responsibilities?


With rights come responsibilities. The Convention outlines the following responsibilities:

  • For children: the responsibility to respect the rights of others.
  • For parents: to respect and provide for the rights of their children.
  • For governments: to support families and to respect and provide for the rights of children through laws, policies and special programs.

Common Questions About Children’s Rights Education In Schools


Why are children learning about their rights at school?
The Convention requires that children, as well as adults, know about the rights described within it. Schools are the logical place to reach the vast majority of children.

How does the children’s rights curriculum fit with the learning goals of the school system?
The goals of both the children’s rights curriculum and the school system are to assist children in achieving their potential and being responsible citizens. The information taught in the children’s rights curriculum helps children learn respect for self and others, critical thinking skills, and informed decision-making.

Does teaching children’s rights take time away from other classes?
Children’s rights is not taught as a separate course. The children’s rights curriculum blends with existing classes in social studies, health, and personal development. Some teachers have also adapted the activities for use in math and other classes.

What about children’s respect for the rights of others?
The issue of respect for the rights of others is contained in several articles of the Convention. For example, children have the right to express themselves and the right to meet with others and to form associations. But in exercising these rights, the child learns that she or he must respect the rights, freedoms and reputations of others. Research evidence shows that when children are taught in school about their rights and responsibilities under the Convention, they are indeed more respecting of the rights of others. Children who have learned about their rights under the Convention, compared with those who have not show:

  • a more accurate understanding of what it means to have rights and responsibilities
  • greater acceptance of minority children
  • better relationships with their classmates and teachers
  • higher self-esteem

How can parents support what children are learning about the Convention at school?
Being involved in your child’s activities and providing supervision are essential in promoting the development of healthy, positive behaviors in children. Family participation through activities and discussions not only makes the learning process more enjoyable for the child, but also strengthens family ties. Show your child that you view him or her as an active partner in your family, and as a valuable person with rights. Take the time to ask your child what he/she has learned recently regarding children’s rights. Discuss the concepts learned in class, and try to think of examples from your own experiences, or from the media, of rights being respected or denied. Discuss how your child or your family can promote respect for rights, or help those whose rights have been violated.
Ask your child’s opinion on children’s rights, and offer to help your child with any homework activities or other projects being carried out at school. We encourage you to take an active part in your child’s education. If possible, attend your child’s class in order to teach your favorite games, to talk about your family background, type, or lifestyle, or even to explain your job to the students. As with most things, the learning of rights, respect, and responsibility begins at home. Children often learn what they see and hear. By becoming involved in your child’s learning and showing an interest in who he/she is and what he/she is doing, you help your child to learn the importance of giving and sharing with others.

 

Let's Practice

1. Which is the year for "The Declaration of the Rights of Child"?
A. 1967
B. 1962
C. 1960
D. 1959


Answer D


2. When was the "International Convention on the Rights of Child" adopted by the General Assembly?
A. 20/11/1989
B. 12/12/1990
C. 26/01/1995
B. 15/08/1999


Answer A


3. Who was the President of the General Assembly, when the International Convention on the Rights of Child was adopted by the General Assembly?
A. Mr. Joseph N Garba
B. Mr. Martin J Garba
C. Mr. Suresh S
D. Mr. Ajay Chauhan


Answer A


4. The International Convention on the Rights of Child consisted of how many Articles when it was presented to the General Assembly?
A. 95
B. 84
C. 55
D. 35


Answer D

5. Which Section of The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 defines the term "Child"?
A. Section 1
B. Section 2 (i)
C. Section 2 (ii)
D. Section 2 (iii)


Answer C

6. As per the act, Day means a period of 24 hours beginning at ___
A. Morning 8 AM
B. Noon
C. Evening 4 PM
D. Midnight

Answer D

7. As per the The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 a Shop is an establishment.
A. True
B. False

Answer A

8. Identify Section 2(v) of The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.
A. Family
B. Occupier
C. Port Authority
D. Establishment

Answer A

9. As per section 2(viii) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under Section ___
A. 18
B. 20
C. 3
D. 28

Answer A

10. As per the Act, Week means a period of 7 days beginning at midnight on ___
A. Sunday
B. Monday
C. Saturday
D. Thursday

Answer C

11. As per the act, a child should not be permitted to work between ___ & ___.
A. 8 PM; 7 AM
B. 7 PM; 8 AM
C. 6 PM; 7 AM
D. 5 PM; 9 AM

Answer B

12. Is "Overtime Work" permissible for a child?
A. Yes
B. No

Answer B

13. Identify Section 8 of The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.
A. Hours and period of work
B. Notice to inspector
C. Daily hours
D. Weekly holidays

Answer D

14. The notice specifying the weekly holiday of a child shall be kept displayed permanently.
A. True
B. False

Answer A

15. The day specified in notice as a weekly holiday for a child shall not be altered by the occupier more than once in ___.
A. 1 week
B. 1 month
C. 2 months
D. 3 months

Answer D

16. The "Notice to Inspector", as mentioned in Section 9 of the act, shall be sent within how many days of employment of a child and commencement of this act with respect to that particular establishment?
A. 10
B. 15
C. 20
D. 30

Answer D

17. To whom shall the case be initially referred by the Inspector in case of any question regarding age of a child permitted to work in an establishment.
A. Tribunal
B. Police Commissioner
C. Chief Inspector
D. Prescribed Medical Authority

Answer D

18. Which Section of The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 demands for display of notice containing abstract of Sections 3 and 14.
A. Section 9
B. Section 10
C. Section 11
D. Section 12

Answer D

19. The provisions of Section 7, 8 & 9 of the act shall not apply to any establishment wherein any process is carried out by the occupier with the aid of his family.
A. True
B. False

Answer A

20. The provisions of Section 7, 8 & 9 shall not apply to any school established by Government.
A. True
B. False
Answer A

21. Find the incorrect match.
(a) Minimum Wages Act: 1948
(b) Maternity Benefits Act: 1961
(c) Payment of Bonus Act: 1971
(d) The Trade Unions Act: 1926

Answer:- c

22. As per the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act which of the following act is not termed as Sexual Harassment?
(a) A demand or request for a sexual favour
(b) Sexually coloured remarks
(c) Bad Physical contact
(d) Meeting in the cabin of the office

Answer:- d


23. Which of the following statement is/are correct about the Maternity Benefits Act, 1961?

i. It is applicable in just government offices.
ii. It is applicable in only those offices which has more than 10 employees
iii. This Act entitles pregnant women employees for paid maternity leave.

(a) Only i,iii
(b) Only ii,iii
(c) Only ii
(d) Only i,ii

Answer:-b


24. A pregnant women employees is entitled to get paid maternity leave for.....

(a) 6 weeks
(b) 10 weeks
(c) 12 weeks
(d) 16 weeks

Answer:-c


25. When was Sexual Harassment of Women employees at the Workplace Act passed?
(a) 2007
(b) 2001
(c) 1995
(d) 2013

Answer:- d


26. A worker who has been employed in an office for more than a year but dismissed by his employer without any appropriate reason. This matter must be addressed under the.....
(a) Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
(b) Minimum Wages Act, 1948
(c) The Payment of Wages Act, 1936
(d) None of the Above

Answer: -a


27. Which article of the Indian Constitution gives freedom to form a trade Union?

(a) Article 23
(b) Article 19(1)(c)
(c) Article 24
(d) Article 14

Answer:- b


28. Find the correct statement.

(a) Article 39(d) of the Constitution envisages that men and women should receive equal pay for equal work.
(b) Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act was passed in 1957
(c) Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act was passed in 1978
(d) Article 23 of the Indian Constitution prohibits child labour

Answer:- a

29. What is the maximum age for being eligible as a child under The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986?
(a) 14 years
(b) 16 years
(c) 18 years
(d) 12 years

Answer:- a


30. Who had formulated the Employees Provident Fund Scheme?
(a) Medical Benefit Council
(b) ESIC
(c) The State Government
(d) The Central Government
Answer:- d
 

Thank You,
Abhishek Poddar
Mentors 36

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